Dwarven Language

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Khuzdûl Aglab: The Dwarven Language

Dwarven Runes
Dwarven Runes

One of the Languages of Azolin

The Dwarven language is known as "Khuzdûl Aglab" by all Khazâd, as the Dwarves call themselves. To human ears it sounds like a series of harsh consonants intermixed with a few vowels. Word form and intonation are crucial to determining meaning.

Most humans consider the characters representing the Khuzdûl language to be complex runes mainly used for carving on stone. They do resemble runes, some of them simple geometric patterns, known as Crith.

One of the difficulties in learning Aglab is that the words are constructed from biconsonantal and triconsonantal roots (C-C or C-C-C where C represents a consonant and - represents a vowel or consonant/vowel combination). This type of language construction is known as a morpheme.

Sentence Construction

1. Descriptions are placed before the object they describe.
Example: "Az egraz knurlag" means "a strong man", and literally translates as "a strong man".

2. Unlike in English, descriptions can be placed in any order following the object.
Example: "Az carkna cesti borith" (a great, holy chief) can also be rendered as "az cesti carkna borith" (a holy, great chief).

3. Aside from questions, the structure of a sentence in the dwarf language is usually the same as it would be in English.
Example: "Knurlag dorzada az mérna" would literally translate as "he loves the pool". No restructuring of the sentence was required.

4. Questions are ordered subject, verb, object.
Example: "Jok oc fild?" means "who are you?", but literally translates as "you are who?" in English.

Prefixes

  • car- changes verbs into nouns of action. For example, "ignh" (bring) becomes "carignh" (bringer).
  • en- turns adjectives into their superlative forms. For example, "egraz" (bald) becomes "enegraz" (baldest).
  • men- gives words the opposite meaning. For example, "alfrell" (kind) becomes "menalfrell" (unkind).
  • q- changes words to past tense. For example, "is" (do) becomes "qis" (did). If the "q" interferes with the word's pronunciation, it replaces the interfering consonants at the beginning of the word. For example, "zeitmen" (honor) becomes "qeitmen" (honored).

strâdd-: changes present simple verbs into present participles. For example, "smer" (serve) becomes "strâddsmer" (serving).

  • vol- changes words into having endless or eternal properties. For example, "brâgha" (danger) becomes "volbrâgha" (eternal danger). It also acts as "all" or "every" for a word. For example, "sartos" (family) becomes "volsartos" (every family).

Suffixes

  • -a: gives a word a membership or nationality connotation. For example, "ingeitum" (smiths) becomes "ingeituma" (of the smiths).
  • -egûr: turns verbs into nouns. For example, "barzûl" (to curse) becomes "barzûlegûr" (a curse).
  • -n: pluralizes nouns. For example, "borith" (chief) becomes "borithn" (chiefs).
  • -z: makes nouns possessive. For example, "jurgen" (dragon) becomes "jurgenz" (dragon's).

Pronouns

Common Dwarven
he knurlag
him knurlog
it ilf
our dûr
them knurlar
we
you (formal) uul
you (plural) vummen
you (singular) vum

Numbers

Common Dwarven
one ong
two tuk
three dwe
four fut
five sak
six siz
seven set
eight odro
nine nuk
ten don
one hundred kanuz
one thousand millus

Phrases

Dwarven Common
Agradoth boru ngazung Old High Dwarven curse
Alzhak reger! Battle cry, roughly translates to “Die for the sanctuary”
Gudruz dar morakh Old High Dwarven curse
Kai throntar gon-raxanum Old High Dwarven curse
Khudro khadrak ba-thandai My foes’ foe is my friend
Teyr thankardas Cheers or toast, roughly translates to “This tankard of spirits has a future”
Kharan bea Friends meet in (a cheers)
Ungdrin Ankor Dwarven roadway, usually followed by a number or letter rune
Varathika gelm uvalar That is bad/crumbling stone
Vorum dwarkar geddum What would my ancestors say? (expresses surprise or disapproval)
Huram kaugri hurmfar Make the giant stumble (describes a clever trick)
Nyr doch! In an archaic dialect of Dwarven, this phrase means “Eat this axe,” but most dwarves don’t know the expression’s origin. It is among the dwarves’ heartier battle cries.
Horlemmar mernar! Seize the ground, comrades!
Yevo nikar I am set apart (Dwarves often say this during times of mourning or bouts of deep melancholia. A looser translation would be, “Leave me alone; I’m inconsolable right now.”)
Kholengrom Respectful phrase to a dwarf that has a longer and more spectacular beard

Vocabulary

Common Dwarven
above rrin
adventure torst
adventurer ander
agile murref
ale drong
ale, aged grizdal
ale, inferior grog
ale, strong drongnei
ale, weak drongthak
also wharn
ancestor dwarkar
ancient gromthi
and un / oen
anvil grong
are oc
argument murmeling
armor klad
arranger / builder carvlorss
artifact gromdal
assemble och
axe, work az
axe, battle / war azkar
backbone (strength) barak
bad gelm
bald egraz
barren grimaz
battle kazak
battle-glory alagh
battlefield rorntyn
bear (to) môgh
bear urzhad
beard tromm
beardless (insult) mosgrim
beast gor
beautiful splendarr
begin del
below dun
berserker kuldjargh
bet daar
black brumba
bless arûna
bog lurmurk
bones thord
book kron
braid grindal
brave grom
brewery valdahaz
bright glamdarr
brilliant bryn
bring ignh
brother tabor
burden (to bear) hrunk
butcher arglar
by vor
carving, stone agrul
cave mouth ekrund
cave system endar
cavern ungor
cavern, worked caurak
challenge daor
cheese chuf
chief borith
chin nich
citadel damaar
city kyth
clan dûrgrimst
clear thalak
climb, a yaugh
climb, to mrin
closed sab
clothing parlyn
clumsiness tindul
coin ril
cold kal
collapse elgraz
complaint grumbak
comrade merna
confusion werit
consume (food or drink) guz
cook (to) kulgur
corpse raugh
courier carharûg
coward sheilve / mosgrim
crack (flaw) sabrak
craftsman (common name) okri
crazy marman
creek lur
criticism murmelot
crossbow thrund
cunning gorak
current wurlur
curse barzûl
cut ar
danger brâgha
dead shinosh
deal ilith
death shinoch
decay thork
defeat runk
descend deladar
destruction rorn
dig delvar
dirt vo-muul
disagree mur
disbelief bedorn
disease / plague antarax
disgusting sragh
distortion bedrarn
do iz
does strâddis
domain, realm ankor
doom thudul
dragon jurgendrakk
drum, war khrum
drunk gorog
dwarf knurla / khard
dwarven knurlan / khardef
elders urû
elf vanyali
endurance karak
enemy urk’hurz
enemy territory noroth
enough vrron
eternal eovar
evil zahkar
evil place / feeling norogh
exaggeration bedrag
exile lokhar
faith otho
faithful othohuln
fall hurmfa
familiar daern
family sartos
far drek
farm vorn
fat bolg
fate orodûm
father farthen
feast trogg
field tyn
fighter undrāk
filth sargh
find gand
fire fyr
fire, forge grungron
fire (command) zharr
flaw sabrak
flesh thargen
flicker sigt
food voth
food (caught in a dwarf’s beard) gibal
fool wazzok / mosgrek
foot kóstha
for akh
forbidden zhaman
ford rinlur
forest vudd
forge thax
forget warrev
fortify baôhr
fortress kazad
friend gyyr
friend (shieldbrother) samman
from aar
frost-beard feldûnost
fun katorst
future teyr
gap (mountain pass) lhar
gas (poisonous or otherwise) ikor
gems glander
giant kaugri / tronj
gift halaur
gigantic arau
give orta
goblin grobi
goblins, work of the grobkaz
goblin hunting grobkul
god forfend
good dal
gold digon
gold-work (high quality) aelin
good sonn
good luck fin-daur
grab horle
great carkna
greeting volm
greeting (enthusiastic) volmu
greeting (polite, non-friendly) volmot
grime onk
ground mar
grudge / grievance dammaz
guard hefthyn
guest belard
hall grimst
hall, underground khaz
hammer, work korda
hammer, war grund
handholds yauthmair
hard durak
hard (as stone) lahrjorhd
harsh grim
has nos
have guut
haven runedar
he / she / it / you ek
head hiem
heart nien
helm heim
hew skrund
high hyla
hill / knoll tor
holy cesti
home grimst
home (building) faern
home of (suffix) -bardin
honest samryn
honor zeitmen
hope undivver
hot hiel
human umgi
I / me / myself ōr
idiot jargh
ill fate barzûl
in / on bin
in bahst
industrial area naggrund
insult (general) – disreputable, unkempt, dishonored wanaz
ironwork angaz
is ana
isolated zak
kill corl
killer coruul
kin sammank
kind alfrell
kindness thalorn
knowledge xoth
known rûn
ladder yauthil
lady (formal title) rinn
lake glor
lake (mountain) varn
leader thane
leader, religious s’rith
let os
lie / deceit ungrim
light bryna
little lyt
lizardman drakk
locked sabbet
long kado
loose llargh
loose rock on a mountainside skree
love dorzada
love (to) dorza
love, true taerin
low duk
low quality, poorly made, shoddy umgak
lust tharn
mace kuld
machine, war barag
machine, tool dalag
made (craft) qirânû
madness zaki
magic olara
make (cause) huram
man knurlag
march goht
market urbaz
marsh lurgh
may jordn
meeting place ultok
metal, dwarven-made azûl
metal, non-dwarven azuwat
metal, ore donnar
mine grung
miner (slang) boki
mineral mullun
miscreant calass
mistake bedrakor
moment hort
monster nokrog
mountain karaz
mountain meadow vallahir
mud slotch
murderer thagi
mushrooms frongoi
nimble murrif
no (negative) nai
observe dohk
of rōk
ogre gronti
opposite (suffix) -rak
ornamental galaz
orc urk
over rhin
pain grik
pass rast
passage levasst
passageway burakin
payment hurnden
peak, height morndin
pebble ginit
pillar irkul
place goroth
plan, strategy undivvek
plateau zorn
pool mérna
poor wattock
power rhun
promise baraz
quick murrifat
raider vongal
rations stok / skof
raven bran
ravine kalil
rebellious garaz
reckless zander
rendezvous ulturka
rider carmeitder
river ragni
river, wide llhur
rock, small mul
rock, waste or leftover grint
rockfall krunk
rogue zanthrak
romance veltel
rope yathl
rune rûnkar
runesmith rûnkari
safe gauhnith
sapphire mithrim
sea (ocean) auraglor
scar bok
scratch dongliz
scavenge skrat
secrets xunder
see dok
seize horlem
serve smer
shield bakar
shiny bryn
shout rorkaz
sight astim
sister chwaer
skeleton uzkul
slab duraz
slay ach / dreng
slayer drengi
smithing grungnaz
smiths ingeitum
son menthiv
song gama
stair turagh
staircase turin
star isidar
statue hírna
stew kuri
stone, igneous karagdor
stone, sedimentary knurl
stone, metamorphic jorden
stone, unworked lum
stone (worked) uvalar
stop etzil
strange durth
stream ylur
strength barak
strike, hit gorfarl
stumble hurmfar
sword agland
talk geddem
take this holarn
tear sweld
them / those / these um
then azt
there nithgech
they / you (plural) ahf
thief calak
this frekk
time zamish
to ā
tool makaz
trade urbar
treachery beldarak
treasure azgal
treasure, to dauble
trustworthy samren
truth calna
tunnel, unexplored or untested boga
ugliness wurgym
uncomfortable ragarin
undead hreth
underground dunglor
us / we / ourselves ut
vain ufdj
valley neidar
valor aturga
vault thrindrongol
volano karag
walk thân
wanderer kelye’datha
warrior kuldar
warrior, young or wild hazkal
wasteland gazan
watch dôka
watchpost unddrak
water wurn
waterfall zhuf
war vren
want gid
was qana
weak elgram
wealthy bolg
what hert
when wanrak
where wanrag
whiner grumbaki
who fild
wide girt
wild guyll
wolf shrrg
wood wutroth / vruden
would vorum
wrinkles agrul
yes (positive)
yes oeí
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